Passover & The Lord's Supper

Gospel of Luke 22:1-30

Gospel of Luke
The Bible Teacher's Commentary

Paul J. Bucknell

Redemptive time is about to start!

D.) Celebrating the Passover & Lord's Supper (Luke 22:14-23)

And when the hour had come He reclined at the table, and the apostles with Him. And He said to them, “I have earnestly desired to eat this Passover with you before I suffer; for I say to you, I shall never again eat it until it is fulfilled in the kingdom of God.” And when He had taken a cup and given thanks, He said, “Take this and share it among yourselves; for I say to you, I will not drink of the fruit of the vine from now on until the kingdom of God comes.” And when He had taken some bread and given thanks, He broke it, and gave it to them, saying, “This is My body which is given for you; do this in remembrance of Me.” And in the same way He took the cup after they had eaten, saying, “This cup which is poured out for you is the new covenant in My blood. “But behold, the hand of the one betraying Me is with Me on the table. “For indeed, the Son of Man is going as it has been determined; but woe to that man by whom He is betrayed!” And they began to discuss among themselves which one of them it might be who was going to do this thing. (Luke 22:14-23, NASB).

An Introduction (Luke 22:14-23)

Passover cupJesus again and again in this passage referred to His death. It was inevitable. The lamb had to be sacrificed. He was that lamb. His disciples just could not understand or grasp His meaning. They were so confident on His ability to bring in the new kingdom that they did not think much on how Jesus would do it. When they finally discovered that Jesus would be put to death, they would be shaken. Jesus knew this and all the more gathered His disciples together for this Last Supper in order to share many intimate things with them, especially after Judas Iscariot left.

Jesus, on the other hand, when thinking about all the Passover preparations, could only think about His life that was to be shortly given up. He most likely thought of Isaac's question many a year ago. "We have the wood and we know where we will make the offering, but where is the offering?"

The Bible Study Questions (Luke 22:14-23)

1) Who did Jesus celebrate the Passover with (22:14)? Why is the word ‘table’ in italics in verse 14?

2) What does apostle mean? When did Jesus first use the word ‘apostle’ in Luke (see Luke 6:13)?

3) Read aloud what Jesus first said at the feast (22:15-16). What were the significant statements in these verses? Explain the import of the three below.

• Earnestly desired
• Before I suffer
• Never again

4) What did Jesus reiterate in verses 22:17-18?

5) Remember there was a set process they were to eat, talk and drink. Jesus interjected special at significant times during the Passover meal. What did Jesus do with the bread (22:19)? What did Jesus say about sharing the bread and again what is the significance of it?

6) What did Jesus do with the cup (22:20)? How is this connected to the historical significance of the Passover?

7) Explain the significance of Jesus’ statement in 22:20, “This cup which is poured out for you is the new covenant in my blood.” Do you think the disciples understood this? Why or why not?

8) Why did Jesus mention the betrayer aloud (22:21-22)? Where and what is “going as it has been determined” found in the Old Testament?

“This is my body which is given for you” (Luke 22:19)

The Application Questions (Luke 22:1-6)

What Jesus said at this meal will forever change Christianity. How so? Discuss how Christianity would be different without the Lord’s Supper.

Explain the two parts of the Lord's Supper in as much detail that you can. Why are each important?

Here are some not so important questions about the Lord's Supper.

• Why is it sometimes called 'Holy Communion?'

• How often should one hold the Lord's Supper? One time a person who seemed to love the Lord stomped out of church when discovered that we held communion once a month instead of two times a year.

• Does it matter what kind of bread or wine/grape juice is used?

One of the big differences between parachurch organizations such as student groups and churches is that they do not have communion. What makes a church a church? Please discuss.

A Summary (Luke 22:14-23)

The importance of what happened here should not be trivialized. Although the Lord's Supper seems like just another religious rite, it was strategically designed much like the Passover for the Old Testament Jews. The Lord’s Supper at once reminds us of the past with the devotion and grace of Jesus who was willing to die for sinners as well as the future where all will be fully restored by what Christ has done for us. We are at once touched in our heart and re-envisioned for our future choices. No wonder Jesus wanted us to regularly celebrate it.

When we saw God’s people carefully hold the Passover in the Old Testament, we saw a strong people of God. They were being renewed. So it is when God’s people understand the full ramifications of Holy Communion. They are energized and focused on God’s forgiving work. If we, however, like the Israelites with their Passover, refrain from peering deeper into the meaning of the Lord’s supper, then it will remain to be just a ritual with little or no effect. The power of the cross will help us only as much as we reflect on its meaning.

Although this passage does not touch on the finer details of the new covenant such as justification by faith, we should recognize that He is establishing the time so that we can remind ourselves of these important details. "Do this in remembrance of me" is not just a living memorial, it is the very means by which Christ invigorates His people by living in them.

We might think that the evening supper was an intimate time. It probably was in some ways. We should not forget, though, that evening there was infighting among the disciples. What were they fighting about? Who is the greatest? Next =>

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Biblical Foundations for Freedom - Resources on the Gospel of Luke

(Luke 1-3)

Luke Introduction pdf
Luke Teaching Outline pdf
Luke 1:26-38 Christmas Lights pdf
Luke 1:45-55 Christmas Prayer pdf
Luke 1:56-75 Notes pdf
Luke 1:57-80 John's Birth pdf
Luke 2:1-20 Jesus' Birth pdf
Luke 2:8-20 Good News pdf
Luke 3:1-38 Jesus & John pdf
Luke 3:21-38 Genealogy pdf

(Luke 4-9:36)

Luke 5:27-32 Needy pdf
Luke 5:33-35 Fasting Discipline pdf
Luke 5:36-39 New-Wineskins pdf
Luke 6:1-11 Sabbath pdf
Luke 6:11-19 Character & Calling pdf
Luke 7:1-10 Faith html
Luke 7:11-17 Widow & Son html
Luke 7:18-35 John the Baptist html
Luke 7:36-50 Two-debtors html
Luke 7:1-50 Faith pdf
Luke 8:22-25 Storm-Stilled pdf
Luke 8:26-39 Demoniac pdf
Luke 8:40-56 Power-Death pdf

Luke 9:1-36 Handout Questions pdf
Luke 9:1-10 Sending out Twelve html
Luke 9:11-17 Feeding of 5000 html
Luke 9:18-26 Life of Denial - Questions html
Luke 9:27-36 Glory of Christ html
Luke 9:37-48 Greatness pdf
Luke 9:45-55 Pride & Leadership pdf
Luke 9:57-62 Discipleship html | pdf | Questions html | pdf
Luke 9:57-10:2 Mission Ready html | pdf {See NT Library for more}
Luke 10:1 Mission Involvement html
Luke 10:2a Mission Worldview html
Luke 10:2b Prayer & missions html
Luke 11:1-5 Content of Prayer pdf
Luke 11:14-26 Participating in Prayer pdf
Luke 11:14-28 Prayer Strategy pdf
Luke 11:5-13 Persistent in Prayer pdf

(Luke 12-19:27)

Luke 12:25-26 A Perspective on Worry html
Luke 13:1-5 Understanding Disasters html | pdf
Luke 13:18-19 Mustard Seed pdf
Luke 13:20-30 Leaven & Decisions pdf
Luke 13:31-35 Mission Growth pdf
Luke 14:1-14 Teaching html | pdf
Luke 14:15-35 Commitment html | pdf
Luke 15:1-2 Lost pdf
Luke 15:3-10 Lost Sheep pdf
Luke 15:11-32 Lost Son pdf
Luke 16:19-31 Lazarus pdf
Luke 17:11-19 Perfect Response pdf
Luke 18:1-34 Being Prepared pdf
Luke 18:1-8 Hopelessness html
Luke 18:9-14 Self-righteous html
Luke 18:15-17 Neglected html
Luke 18:18-27 False-Confidence html
Luke 18:28-30 Faithfulness html
Luke 18:31-34 Remember html
Luke 18:35-43 Blind Man pdf
Luke 19:1-10 Tax Collector pdf
Luke 19:11-27 Ten Minas pdf

LUKE 19:28-24)

Luke 19:28-40 Palm Sunday pdf
Luke 19:35-38 Entry html
Luke 19:41-44 Weep Lost pdf
Luke 19:45 20-47 Preach pdf
Luke 20:26-40 Eternity pdf
Luke 22:1-06 The-Plot html
Luke 22:1-30 Introduction html
Luke 22:7-13 The Preparation html
Luke 22:14-23 The Passover html
Luke 22:24-30 Leadership html
Luke 22:1-30 Lord's Supper pdf
Luke 22:29-36 Temptation pdf
Luke 22:31-65 Temptation Handout pdf
Luke 24:13-35 Questions pdf
Luke 24:13-53 Resurrection pdf

Biblical Foundations for Freedom